In 2004, COSEWIC assessed Peary Caribou as Endangered in Canada. Peary Caribou were listed as Endangered under the federal Species at Risk Act in 2011. In 2015, COSEWIC re-assessed Peary caribou as Threatened. A recovery strategy for Peary Caribou is being developed in cooperation with local communities, wildlife management boards, and federal/territorial governments.
In 2012, the NWT Species at Risk Committee assessed Peary Caribou as Threatened in the Northwest Territories. In 2014, Peary Caribou were listed as Threatened in the NWT under the territorial Species at Risk (NWT) Act. An NWT recovery strategy for Peary Caribou is required and is being developed in concert with the national recovery strategy.
The Inuvialuit have taken a strong leadership role in protecting Peary Caribou. Self-imposed harvest quotas for Peary Caribou have been implemented since 1990 and are now reviewed annually. The Olokhaktomiut Hunters and Trappers Committee (Ulukhaktok) enabled specific management zones in their by-laws to ensure quotas are followed for Peary Caribou on northwest Victoria Island and harvest remains low.