COSEWIC assessed Eskimo Curlew as Endangered in 1978, 2000 and 2009. Eskimo Curlew was listed as Endangered under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA) in 2003. The SARA provides protection for individual Eskimo Curlews and their residences. Eskimo Curlews and their nests are also protected under the federal Migratory Birds Convention Act and Eskimo Curlews are internationally protected from trade in live birds or bird parts by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).
A national recovery strategy for Eskimo Curlew is available at www.sararegistry.gc.ca. However, scientists have determined that recovery of Eskimo Curlew is not feasible at this time.
A species can be classified as extinct if 50 years have passed since the last credible record, there is no remaining habitat, or there is information to confirm extinction. The last time Eskimo Curlew was assessed by COSEWIC was in 2009, and at that time, less than 50 years had passed since the last confirmed sighting.